1861President Abraham Lincoln issued an order prohibiting the northern states from trading with the breakaway states of the Confederacy.1918Lothar Witzke was convicted of espionage by a military commission, becoming the first German spy convicted by the U.S. in World War I. President Wilson commuted Witzke’s death sentence in 1920. In 1922, Witzke was pardoned by President Calvin Coolidge and deported to Berlin.