1944Jackie Robinson refuses to move to the back of a military bus at Camp Hood Texas, leading to a court-martial. The future star ballplayer was acquitted of all charges. Less than a year later, he’d begin his pro baseball career in the Negro Leagues, and he’d break the National League’s color barrier in 1947.1983The U. S. Supreme Court rules in Arizona Governing Comm. v. Norris that retirement plans cannot pay women less than men. A female plaintiff who worked for a state agency brought the class-action …